—–. 1989. This new Syntax and you will Semantics away from Verb Morphology inside the Progressive Aramaic: Good Jewish Dialect off Iraqi Kurdistan. American China Collection, 69. Brand new Sanctuary: American Oriental Neighborhood.
Meehan, Charles, and you may Jacqueline Alon. 1979. New Man Whose Tunic Trapped to Him: An effective Folktale throughout the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect away from Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel China Knowledge 9:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Facts and you can Background for the a routine out of Lamentations on the Ninth of Ab in the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect regarding Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The ebook out-of Exodus inside Neo-Aramaic regarding Dialect of your own Jewish Society away from Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
Such half a dozen binyanim of Syriac was in fact low in NENA so you can one or two very first classes, with a 3rd directly allied on the second
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and you will Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Code Contact, Creolization, and you will Hereditary Linguistics. Berkeley and La: Univ. from California Press.
The initial group originated from brand new peal, next category throughout the pael, together with 3rd, whose vocalism follows that of the following, is derived from the fresh afel
Various other grounds complicating the situation is the differential influences of one’s certain co-territorial languages. This new dialect differences inside Kurdish have become considerable, in order to the impact will be traced a few of the variation certainly one of NENA dialects. Including, the new Jewish Neo-Aramaic of Halabja, including the Kurdish of your urban area, will not differentiate a gift and you may upcoming stressful, but where Kurdish preserves including a change, therefore do Neo-Aramaic. Inside Azerbaijan, Turkish have exerted strong impact on this new Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), plus the languages of the ordinary out of Mosul reveal a powerful determine out-of Arabic not viewed in other places.
Tkhuma (Tx): What from descendants from emigrants from just one of your own semi-separate ashirets out-of the southern part of Poultry, now resident along side Khabur Area from inside the Syria. Data is out-of Jacobi (1973) and you can my cards.
(5) Syriac had three very first spoken stems, the fresh peal, brand new pael, and the afel. To the was basically additional about three passive stems, designed regarding the basic of them by the prefixation out of age[Theta]-: the new e[Theta]pael, the new e[Theta]paal, together with ettafal. This situation is available during the NENA. In the most common NENA dialects, verbs tend to stay static in the verb kinds in which these were found in prior to stages of one’s code. That is, the brand new descendant away from an effective Syriac peal verb will be an excellent NENA Classification I verb, and you may good Syriac pael verb would-be an effective NENA Class II verb: for example, https://datingranking.net/tr/amor-en-linea-inceleme/ Urmi ptaxa ‘open’ from prior to peal, and you may sadure ‘send’ away from prior to pael. Although not, when you look at the Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and perhaps Koy Sanjaq, the category membership has been reorganized which can be foreseeable to the foundation of one’s form of this new base in the place of their historical resource. Like, from inside the Azerbaijani the C stalk provides the form CaCoC- for voice verbs, whatever their origin, and you may CCaC- to possess center-poor verbs: garosen ‘I have always been pulling’, however, kwasan ‘I (f.) in the morning descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Various other extremely extreme creativity from inside the NENA ‘s the third person copula which have l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This form will get get (Noldeke 1868, 203) away from we[Theta] leh ‘he has’, however, no copula enjoy it can be found additional NENA. The first and you can next individual do not have a keen l, but inside the Jewish Azerbaijani, where l has been general from paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin we:earn ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile is located during NENA except in the Halabja, that has -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it is the few days regarding mercy’. None Turoyo nor Mandaic has models synchronous so you can ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he is here’, harke-no ‘I are here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he are charming’, basim-na ‘I in the morning charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The outdated Aramaic word having ‘son’, bra in BT, could have been expanded throughout NENA except Hertevin by the inclusion of the diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, private communications), Zakho brona (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 177). Although not, each other Turoyo and you may Mandaic keeps a keen epenthetic vowel, but zero suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and you will Mandaic eber or ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) In some instances, Hertevin aligns with Turoyo, from the rest of NENA. It does not have a great CCaCa introduce tense (6), does not have any sodir preterite (12), has no preposition ta (15), and you can uses ruh to create reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. The newest Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect away from Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Analysis and you may Folkloristic Messages. Janua Linguarum, series practica step three. The new Hague: Mouton.